For Authors

Instructions for Authors


Submission Checklist


  1. Read the Aims & Scope to gain an overview and assess if your manuscript is suitable for our journal;
  2. Use the Microsoft Word template to prepare your manuscript;
  3. Make sure that issues about publication ethics, copyright, authorship, figure formats, data and references format have been appropriately considered;
  4. Ensure that all authors have approved the content of the submitted manuscript and confirm that they read the Instructions for Authors.

Manuscript Submission Overview

Publications Types

Full experimental details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced. filed requires that authors publish all experimental controls and make full datasets available where possible

Submissions of manuscripts to journals should not be under consideration for publication in another journal, nor should they have been published elsewhere. The primary article kinds are mentioned below, and you can get an exhaustive list of all article types here.

  • Article: These are first-hand accounts of research studies. The paper should present trials that are in line with science and offer a significant amount of fresh data. The most current and pertinent references in the field should be included in the article. A minimum word count of 4000 words is recommended for the structure, which should have an Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions (optional) sections.
  • Review: In order to discover current gaps or issues in a field of study, reviews provide a thorough analysis of the body of literature already published in that field. They ought to be constructively critical and offer suggestions for more study. There should be no fresh, unreleased data provided. A minimum word count of 4000 words is recommended for the structure, which can comprise an Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Relevant Sections, Discussion, Conclusions, and Future Directions.

Submission Process

Manuscripts for journal should be submitted email at The submitting author, who is generally the corresponding author, is responsible for the manuscript during the submission and peer-review process. The submitting author must ensure that all eligible co-authors have been included in the author list (read the criteria to qualify for authorship) and that they have all read and approved the submitted version of the manuscript. To submit your manuscript,  submission website.

Accepted File Formats

Authors are encouraged to use the Microsoft Word template to prepare their manuscript. Using the template file will substantially shorten the time to complete copy-editing and publication of accepted manuscripts. The total amount of data for all files must not exceed 10 MB. If this is a problem, please contact the Editorial Office Accepted file formats are:

  • Microsoft Word: Before being submitted, manuscripts created in Microsoft Word must be combined into a single file. We recommend using the Microsoft Word template file for preparing manuscripts in Word. After the paragraph containing the first citation in the main text, please insert your graphics (schemes, figures, etc.). Prior to submission, all identifying text and metadata for the authors should be eliminated.

Free Format Submission

Journal now accepts free format submission:

  • We do not have strict formatting requirements, but all manuscripts must contain the required sections: Author Information, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials & Methods, Results, Conclusions, Figures and Tables with Captions, Funding Information, Author Contributions, Conflict of Interest and other Ethics Statements. Check the Journal Instructions for Authors for more details.
  • Your references may be in any style, provided that you use the consistent formatting throughout. It is essential to include author(s) name(s), journal or book title, article or chapter title (where required), year of publication, volume and issue (where appropriate) and pagination. DOI numbers (Digital Object Identifier) are not mandatory but highly encouraged. The bibliography software package EndNote, Mendeley, Reference Manager are recommended.
  • When your manuscript reaches the revision stage, you will be requested to format the manuscript according to the journal guidelines.

Cover Letter

Every manuscript submission needs to have a cover letter attached. The complete manuscript can be attached to the cover letter, together with further information about identifying text that was omitted from the work and the author names and affiliations in full. It should also be brief and provide an explanation of the significance of the paper’s content, setting the findings in the perspective of previous research and demonstrating how the study falls within the journal’s purview. Verify that the paper is not presently being considered for publication in another journal, nor are any portions of its contents. The manuscript must be acknowledged for any previous submissions it may have made to Gulf Publishers journals. The submission system should contain the names of the suggested and rejected reviewers, not the

Author Identification

Authors are encouraged to mention a biography (300–1500 characters) to the submission and upload it. This should be a single paragraph and should contain the following points:

  1. Authors’ full names followed by current positions;
  2. Education background including institution information and year of graduation (type and level of degree received);
  3. Work experience;
  4. Current and previous research interests;
  5. Memberships of professional societies and awards received.

If a manuscript is accepted for publication, we will add an icon linking to your online ORCID profile in the final version of the published paper.

Author Affiliation

Each author should indicate which affiliation they now belong to as well as the affiliation where the majority of the research for their publication was done. The affiliation where the majority of the research was carried out or supported should be included first, but please check with your institution for any regulations related to any contracts.

The accuracy of author names and affiliations is crucial. Inaccurate information might result in issues with funding or promotion, as well as improper citation or attribution. Updates or changes to the author’s affiliation or address after the article has been published might not be allowed.

Independent Researcher

The authors should identify themselves as “Independent Researchers” if any or all of them do not currently or have not been associated with a university, organisation, or business when the publication was being developed.

Manuscript Preparation

General Considerations

  • Research manuscripts should comprise:
    • Front matter: Title, Author list, Affiliations, Abstract, Keywords.
    • Research manuscript sections: Introduction, Results, Discussion, Materials and Methods, Conclusions (optional).
    • Back matter: Supplementary Materials, Acknowledgments, Author Contributions, Conflicts of Interest, References.
  • Review manuscripts should comprise the front matter, literature review sections and the back matter. The template file can also be used to prepare the front and back matter of your review manuscript. It is not necessary to follow the remaining structure. Structured reviews and meta-analyses should use the same structure as research articles and ensure they conform to the PRISMA guidelines.
  • Graphical Abstract:

An image that appears in the Table of Contents next to the text abstract is called a graphical abstract (GA). It should not only provide a synopsis of the content but also draw attention to the article’s main idea. Furthermore, it shouldn’t be a simple superposition of multiple subfigures or precisely the same as the Figure in the study. Keep keep mind that original, unpublished artwork is required for the GA. It should not contain any postage stamps, foreign currencies, or merchandise that is protected by a trademark.

The GA should be a high-quality illustration or diagram in any of the following formats: PNG, JPEG, or TIFF. Written text in a GA should be clear and easy to read, using one of the following fonts: Times, Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Ubuntu or Calibri.

The minimum required size for the GA is 560 × 1100 pixels (height × width). The size should be of high quality in order to reproduce well.

  • Acronyms/Abbreviations/Initialisms should be defined the first time they appear in each of three sections: the abstract; the main text; the first figure or table. When defined for the first time, the acronym/abbreviation/initialism should be added in parentheses after the written-out form.
  • SI Units (International System of Units) should be used. Imperial, US customary and other units should be converted to SI units whenever possible.
  • Equations: If you are using Word, please use either the Microsoft Equation Editor or the MathType add-on. Equations should be editable by the editorial office and not appear in a picture format.
  • Research Data and supplementary materials: Note that publication of your manuscript implies that you must make all materials, data, and protocols associated with the publication available to readers. Disclose at the submission stage any restrictions on the availability of materials or information. Read the information about Supplementary Materials and Data Deposit for additional guidelines.
  • Preregistration: Where authors have preregistered studies or analysis plans, links to the preregistration must be provided in the manuscript.
  • Guidelines and standards: GP follows standards and guidelines for certain types of research.

Front Matter

These sections should appear in all manuscript types

  • Title: Your manuscript’s title should be clear, precise, and pertinent. It should state whether the study is a systematic review, meta-analysis, replication study, or reports trial data (human or animal). Kindly refrain from utilising shortened or truncated versions of the title, such head or running title. We will have our Editorial Office remove these.
  • Author List and Affiliations: The whole first and last names of the authors must be given. You can add the initials of any middle names. For affiliations, the PubMed/MEDLINE standard format is followed, which includes the entire address details (city, zip code, state/province, and country). The designation of “corresponding author” should be applied to at least one author. All authors’ email addresses will be visible in published articles and will normally be masked on the website by a captcha. It is the corresponding author’s duty to make sure that each author gives permission for their email address to be displayed. The related author must specify during proofreading if any other authors—aside from themselves—do not want their email addresses to be shown in this manner. Updates to author names or connections could not be allowed after acceptance. Equal Contributions: A superscript symbol (†) should be used to identify authors who have contributed equally. The notation “These authors contributed equally to this work” and the symbol must be inserted beneath the affiliations. The author contributions statement should sufficiently disclose the writers’ equal roles. Kindly review the requirements to be eligible for authorship.
  • Abstract: The abstract should not exceed 200 words in total. Without headings, the abstract should be one paragraph long and formatted similarly to a structured abstract: 1) Background: Describe the topic being studied in general terms and emphasise the goal of the research; 2) Methods: Provide a brief description of the primary techniques or interventions used. Add the species and strains of any animals utilised, as well as any pertinent preregistration numbers; 3) Results: Recap the primary conclusions of the paper; and 4) Conclusion: Summarize the key findings or conclusions. The abstract must accurately summarise the paper; it cannot include findings that are not discussed and supported in the body of the work, nor should it overstate its key findings.
  • Keywords: It is necessary to include three to ten relevant keywords following the abstract. It is advised that the keywords be somewhat prevalent within the field of study yet specifically relevant to the content.

Research Manuscript Sections

  • Introduction: The study’s significance should be emphasised and the study’s general context should be briefly explained in the introduction. It should outline the significance of the endeavour, its goal, and the particular theories that will be evaluated. It is important to thoroughly examine the state of the field’s research and to mention any important works. When required, please highlight divergent and contentious theories. In conclusion, give a quick overview of the work’s primary goal and emphasise its key findings. Make the introduction understandable to scientists who are not involved in the paper’s subject matter.
  • Results: Give a succinct and accurate explanation of the experimental findings, their meaning, and any inferred experimental inferences.
  • Discussion: The results and how they might be interpreted in light of earlier research and working hypotheses should be reported by the authors. It is important to discuss the results and their consequences in the widest context feasible and to draw attention to the work’s limitations. Future directions for research can also be addressed. Results and this section could be combined.
  • Materials and Methods: They ought to be sufficiently detailed so that subsequent researchers can build on previously published findings and repeat them. While well-established methods can be quickly presented and properly cited, new methods and protocols should be described in length. Provide the software’s name and version, and indicate if the computer code was accessed. Incorporate any codes for pre-registration.
  • Conclusions: This section is not mandatory but can be added to the manuscript if the discussion is unusually long or complex.
  • Patents: This section is not mandatory but may be added if there are patents resulting from the work reported in this manuscript.

Back Matter

  • Supplementary Materials: Explain any additional content that has been posted online in conjunction with the manuscript (figure, tables, video, spreadsheets, etc.).  Please provide the following names and titles for each element. Titles of Figure S1, Table S1, etc.
  • Author Contributions: In addition to having approved the submitted version (and the version significantly edited by journal staff that involves the author’s contribution to the study), each author is expected to have made substantial contributions to the work’s conception or design, data acquisition, analysis, or interpretation, the creation of new software used in the work, or to having drafted the work or substantively revised it. They also agree to take personal responsibility for their own contributions and to see to it that any questions regarding the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work—even those in which they were not personally involved—are duly investigated, answered, and documented in the literature.
  • Data Availability Statement: In this section, please provide details regarding where data supporting reported results can be found, including links to publicly archived datasets analyzed or generated during the study. Please refer to suggested Data Availability Statements in section “Gulf Publishers Research Data Policies”. You might choose to exclude this statement if the study did not report any data.
  • Acknowledgments: In this section you can acknowledge any support given which is not covered by the author contribution or funding sections. This may include administrative and technical support, or donations in kind (e.g., materials used for experiments).
  • Conflicts of Interest: Any personal circumstances or conflicts of interest that can be seen as affecting how the published study results are reported or interpreted must be disclosed by the authors. Please say, “The authors declare no conflict of interest,” if there isn’t one. This section must disclose any involvement the financial sponsors may have had in the study’s design, data collection, analysis, or interpretation, manuscript writing, or choice to publish the findings. Any personal circumstances or conflicts of interest that can be seen as affecting how the published study results are reported or interpreted must be disclosed by the authors. Please say, “The authors declare no conflict of interest,” if there isn’t one. This section must disclose any involvement the financial sponsors may have had in the study’s design, data collection, analysis, or interpretation, manuscript writing, or choice to publish the findings. If there was no involvement, kindly say so: “The funding sponsors had no influence over the study’s design, data collection, analysis, or interpretation, manuscript writing, or decision to publish the findings.” For additional information, please see Conflict of Interest.
  • References: An alphabetical list of references is a must. At the conclusion of the manuscript, each source is listed separately under the writers’ last names. Using a bibliography software programme to prepare the references is something we advise. An alphabetical list of references is a must. At the conclusion of the manuscript, each source is listed separately under the writers’ last names. Using a bibliography software programme to prepare the references is something we advise. such as EndNote, ReferenceManager to avoid typing mistakes and duplicated references. We encourage citations to data, computer code and other citable research material. If available online, you may use reference style 8. below.
  • Citations and References in Supplementary files are permitted provided that they also appear in the main text and in the reference list.

The format of all references cited in the text should be “Author-Date.” Citations, for example, can be written as (Xyz, 2016) or (Xyz & Xyz, 2016).  An author-date citation in running text or at the conclusion of a block quotation is composed of the author(s)’ last name and the year of publication. In addition to specific writers, the term “author” often refers to organisations, editors, translators, and compilers when appropriate. The year of publication and the author’s name are separated without punctuation, and no “ed.” or “trans.” abbreviations are used.

The Reference list should include the full title as recommended by the APA style guide. The style file for endnote, References should be described as follows depending on the type of work:

  1. Journal Articles:
    • Author 1, and Author 2. (Year). Title of the Article. Journal Title, Volume (Issue), Page Range.
  2. Books and Book Chapters:
    • Author 1, and Author 2. (Year). Book Title (rev. ed.). Publication Place: Publisher, Page Range.
    • Author 1, and Author 2. (Year). Title of the Chapter. In Editor 1, and Editor 2 (Eds.), Book Title (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 54–96). Publication Place: Publisher.
  3. Unpublished work, submitted work, personal communication:
    • Author 1, and Author 2. (Year). Title of Unpublished Work. Journal Title, Stage of Publication.
    • Author 1 (University, City, State, Country), and Author 2 (Institute, City, State, Country). (Year). Personal Communication.
  4. Conference Proceedings:
    • Author 1, Author 2, and Author 3. (Year). Title of Presentation. In Editor 1, Editor 2, & Editor 3 (Eds.), Title of the Collected Work (pp. Pagination). Paper presented at Name of the Conference, Location of Conference, Date of Conference. Publication Place: Publisher.
  5. Thesis:
    • Author 1. (Year). Title of Thesis (Level of Thesis, Degree-Granting University, City, Country). Date (if available). Identification Information (if available).
  6. Websites:
    • Author 1, and Author 2. (Year). Title of the Article. Magazine/Journal Name. Available online: URL (accessed Day Month Year).
    • Title of Site. Available online: URL (archived on Day Month Year).

See the Reference List and Citations Guide for more detailed information.

Preparing Figures, Schemes and Tables

  • File for Figures and Schemes must be provided during submission in a single zip archive and at a sufficiently high resolution (minimum 1000 pixels width/height, or a resolution of 300 dpi or higher). Common formats are accepted, however, TIFF, JPEG, EPS and PDF are preferred.
  • journal can publish multimedia files in articles or as supplementary materials. Please contact the editorial office for further information.
  • All Figures, Schemes and Tables should be inserted into the main text close to their first citation and must be numbered following their number of appearance (Figure 1, Scheme 1, Figure 2, Scheme 2, Table 1, etc.).
  • All Figures, Schemes and Tables should have a short explanatory title and caption.
  • All table columns should have an explanatory heading. To facilitate the copy-editing of larger tables, smaller fonts may be used, but no less than 8 pt. in size. Authors should use the Table option of Microsoft Word to create tables.
  • Authors are encouraged to prepare figures and schemes in color (RGB at 8-bit per channel). There is no additional cost for publishing full color graphics.

Supplementary Materials, Data Deposit and Software Source Code

GP Research Data Policies

GP is dedicated to facilitating free scientific communication and helping our writers follow best practises when it comes to sharing and preserving research findings. We encourage research data, including but not limited to protocols, analytic methods, raw data, processed data, code, software, algorithms, and study material, to be shared by all authors of articles published in GP journals. For the benefit of other researchers, the data must be FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable).

It is advisable to store data and code in a reliable repository to maximise their reuse (see the Data Preservation section below).  If this isn’t feasible, authors should indicate why in the Data Availability Statement and make this information available to researchers who are interested in it upon request. The Supplies and Methods section should also list any research materials required to make an experiment replicable. You can find specific journal guidelines on the ‘Instructions for Authors’ page of the journal. Data sharing regulations pertain to the minimum dataset required to substantiate the principal discoveries of a published study. The generated data must be made publicly accessible and properly cited in journals as per publication requirements.

GP data policies are informed by TOP Guidelines.

Data sharing should not occur where there are privacy, legal, or ethical concerns. The authors must specify in the Data Availability Statement any restrictions or exceptions, as well as the availability status of the data at the time of submission. The consent that participants gave for the use of their personal information should be followed by the authors when sharing data. The authors should make sure that neither local data protection rules nor participant anonymity are violated by publishing such data.

When access to a dataset is restricted to safeguard proprietary or confidential information, authors will be expected to provide a clear explanation of these restrictions and grant permission to access the data upon request for peer review.

GP is aware that some organisations and funding sources only demand that research data be kept for a limited amount of time following the conclusion or publication of a study. Since the GP Data Availability Policy does not contain any restrictions of this kind, we advise the authors to either preserve their research data in suitable data repositories or supply us with minimum datasets as Supplementary Material.

Data availability statements

Statements regarding data availability are necessary for every article published using GP. Authors may be asked to share pre-existing datasets or raw data that have been examined in the work, as well as whether or not other researchers will have access to them after publication, during the peer-review and editorial decision-making processes. The specifics of any existing datasets that have been examined for analysis in the publication will also be requested from the authors.

Below are the recommended Data Availability Statements:

Data availability status

Recommended Data Availability Statement

Data available in a publicly accessible repository

The data presented in this study are openly available in [repository name, e.g., FigShare] at [doi], reference number [reference number].

Data available in a publicly accessible repository that does not issue DOIs

Publicly available datasets were analyzed in this study. This data can be found here: [link/accession number].

Data available on request due to restrictions (e.g., privacy, legal or ethical reasons)

The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author (accurately indicate status).

3rd Party Data

Restrictions apply to the availability of these data. Data were obtained from [third party] and are available [from the authors/at URL] with the permission of [third party].

Embargo on data due to commercial restrictions

The data that support the findings will be available in [repository name] at [URL / DOI link] following an embargo from the date of publication to allow for commercialization of research findings.

Restrictions apply to the datasets:

The datasets presented in this article are not readily available because [include reason, e.g., the data are part of an ongoing study or due to technical/ time limitations]. Requests to access the datasets should be directed to [text input].

Data derived from public domain resources:

The data presented in this study are available in [repository name] at [URL/DOI], reference number [reference number]. These data were derived from the following resources available in the public domain: [list resources and URLs]

Data sharing is not applicable (only appropriate if no new data is generated or the article describes entirely theoretical research.

No new data were created or analyzed in this study. Data sharing is not applicable to this article

Data is contained within the article or supplementary material:

The article/supplementary material contains the original contributions made during the study; for more information, contact the corresponding author or authors.

Dataset available on request from the authors.

The authors will provide the raw data used to support the results in this article upon request.

Open Access Data Preservation Policy

GP for open access publication, we reaffirm that data preservation in academic research is crucial. It is our belief that there is a shared obligation among researchers, institutions, journals, and data repositories to guarantee the integrity and long-term accessibility of research data.

It is highly recommended that authors choose reliable data repositories that support the open access principles by giving priority to long-term data preservation. We strongly encourage writers to pledge to keep their datasets on institutional or laboratory servers for at least five years after publication. This promise is in line with our commitment to open science and strengthens the accessibility and transparency of research findings.

Authors are recommended to submit their data to an alternate repository in case the original data repository is unavailable or suffering data loss during this five-year term. In addition, authors who remove their data from the original public repository or modify access conditions in a way that is not compatible with publication should tell our editorial office right once.

Authors contribute to the dependability and reproducibility of academic research under the open access framework by adhering to certain data retention policies. We are unwavering in our commitment to supporting writers’ efforts to properly and transparently maintain and distribute research data, promoting an open science culture.

Guidelines for Selecting a Suitable Data Repository

We strongly urge authors to deposit their data in community-recognized data repositories wherever possible, as we are a publication dedicated to open access ideals. To help writers with this effort, we suggest using tools like or to find certified and registered data repositories related to their field of study. These systems let users make well-informed decisions on data deposition by providing thorough listings of repositories.

We encourage the use of generalist data repositories, if available from authors’ universities, to house authors’ data as long as they are able to generate DataCite DOIs and allow data sharing under open conditions of use, like CC0 waivers. This strategy is in line with our dedication to supporting free access to research data while maintaining its discoverability and accessibility over time.

By following these principles, writers support the larger goals of open science and enable the transparent and easily available sharing of their research findings.

Data repository criteria

The following criteria should be considered when selecting an appropriate repository, ensuring that platforms:

  • Ensure long-term persistence and preservation of datasets in their published form;
  • Provide stable identifiers for submitted datasets (DOIs in most cases);
  • Allow public access to data without barriers, such as logins or paywalls;
  • Support open licenses (CC0 and CC-BY, or their equivalents, are required in most cases);
  • Provide confidential review of submitted datasets without the requirement for reviewers to provide identifying information.

Data citation

It is recommended that authors formally credit any datasets—including the primary datasets under submission and any additional datasets utilised throughout the work—that are housed in external repositories and that they make reference to in their publication. Authors should cite the datasets themselves as well as the relevant research articles for datasets that have already been published. Before publication, Journal Editorial team verifies and enforces appropriate citation of data.

Computer Code and Software

When writing original computer code, authors should make the code available to the public by uploading it as supplemental data to a publication or putting it in a reputable public repository. All software utilised should have its name and version prominently displayed.

Supplementary Material

You can upload more information and files as “Supplementary Files” when submitting your manuscript. In the course of the peer-review procedure, the referees will also have access to the supplemental files. Any file format is accepted, though if possible, we advise using popular, non-proprietary formats.

Unpublished Data

Restrictions on data availability should be noted during submission and in the manuscript. “Data not shown” should be avoided: authors are encouraged to publish all observations related to the submitted manuscript as Supplementary Material. “Unpublished data” intended for publication in a manuscript that is either planned, “in preparation” or “submitted” but not yet accepted, should be cited in the text and a reference should be added in the References section. “Personal Communication” should also be cited in the text and reference added in the References section. (see also the GP reference list and citations style guide).

Remote Hosting and Large Data Sets

Repositories that use the DataCite technique are the most recommended; deposits of data can be made to institutional/subject repositories, specialised service providers, or both. This method is required for depositing large data sets and files larger than 10 MB. Check out or for a list of additional repositories that are devoted to scientific and experimental data. The publication must provide the name of the data repository, a link to the data set, and the data set’s accession number, doi, or handle number (URL).  Data set studies are also accepted for publication in the journal Data. The journal Data also accepts submissions of data set papers.

References in Supplementary Files

Citations and References in Supplementary files are permitted provided that they also appear in the reference list of the main text.

Research and Publication Ethics

Research Ethics

An example of an ethical statement would be: “Prior to the study commencing, every participant gave their informed consent to be enrolled. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and the protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of XXX (Project identification code).”

When it comes to non-interventional studies (including questionnaires, surveys, and social media research), all participants need to be fully informed about the goals of the study, the intended use of their data, the assurance of anonymity, and any potential risks. As with any human subjects research, ethical approval from the appropriate ethics council is needed before the study can start. If ethics committee permission is not needed, authors are urged to reference relevant local or federal laws or submit an exemption from the committee if ethics approval is not needed for this kind of research. In the event that a study is exempt from ethical review requirements, the name of the ethics committee that authorised this should be mentioned in the “Institutional Review Board Statement” section along with a thorough justification for the exemption.

A written informed consent for publication must be obtained from participating patients. Data relating to individual participants must be described in detail, but private information identifying participants need not be included unless the identifiable materials are of relevance to the research (for example, photographs of participants’ faces that show a particular symptom). Patients’ initials or other personal identifiers must not appear in any images. For manuscripts that include any case details, personal information, and/or images of patients, authors must obtain signed informed consent for publication from patients (or their relatives/guardians) before submitting to an GP journal. Patient details must be anonymized as far as possible, e.g., do not mention specific age, ethnicity, or occupation where they are not relevant to the conclusions. A template permission form is available to download. A blank version of the form used to obtain permission (without the patient names or signature) must be uploaded with your submission. Editors reserve the right to reject any submission that does not meet these requirements.

In conjunction with their connected institution, authors are invited to utilise our sample consent, permission, or release form as a guide when creating their own. The consent form should give unfettered authorization for distribution in all mediums, including online publication, for publication in general practitioner journals. This includes translations and derivative works, as well as sublicensed and reprinted editions, as well as incorporation into other works and products under an open access licence. In order to protect patients’ and others’ privacy, signed forms should not be sent. If signed forms are thought to be required for verification, the journal retains the right to seek them.

If vulnerable populations are involved in the study, there may be a need for an additional review. The editorial office will review the submitted manuscript and may ask the authors to supply supporting documentation, such as blank consent forms and any pertinent ethics board discussion documents. Additionally, authors of studies that classify groups according to criteria like gender, race, ethnicity, disability, or illness must clearly explain these classifications in the publication.

Ethical Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research

These guidelines have been prepared by the National Committee for Research Ethics in Science and Technology (NENT). Their purpose is to provide ethical guidance for researchers and others considering experiments on animals. The guidelines are useful during project planning, assessment, reporting, and publication. They also contribute to discussions on research ethics and animal use within research communities and public discourse.

Key Principles

  1. Intrinsic Value of Animals: Animals have intrinsic value that must be respected.
  2. Sentience and Consideration: Animals are sentient creatures capable of feeling pain, and their interests should be taken into account.

The 3Rs Principle

Researchers should adhere to the widely accepted 3Rs principle:

  1. Replacement: Whenever possible, replace animals with alternatives.
  2. Reduction: Minimize the number of animals used.
  3. Refinement: Refine experimental conditions to minimize harm to animals.

Reporting Requirements

Legal and Ethical Considerations in India

  • If national legislation mandates it, studies involving vertebrates or higher invertebrates must receive approval from the appropriate ethics committee.
  • In the “Institutional Review Board Statement” section, authors should provide the project identification code, approval date, and ethics committee/institutional review board name.
  • Research procedures must align with national and institutional regulations.
  • Statements on animal welfare should confirm compliance with relevant legislation.
  • Clinical studies involving animals and interventions beyond routine care require ethics committee oversight as per the American Veterinary Medical Association guidelines.
  • For studies involving client-owned animals, informed client consent must be obtained and certified in the manuscript report. Owners should be fully informed of associated risks and the intention to publish the research.
  • When available, a high standard of veterinary care must be provided.

Dual Use Research of Concern

GP follows the practical framework defined in Guidance for Editors: Research, Audit and Service Evaluations and introduced by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Research that has the potential to be extremely dangerous and have wide-ranging effects on national security or public health should be identified in the paper. When submitting a cover letter, prospective dual-use research of concern should be described and given context. Biosecurity, chemical and nuclear threats, research with a military application, and other sectors are possible topics of concern. The advantages of these manuscripts to the public health or broader public must exceed the dangers before they are accepted for peer review. It is incumbent upon the writers to adhere to pertinent national and international legal regulations.

Sex and Gender in Research

We encourage our authors to follow the ‘Sex and Gender Equity in Research – SAGER – guidelines’ and to include sex and gender considerations where relevant. Authors should use the terms sex (biological attribute) and gender (shaped by social and cultural circumstances) carefully in order to avoid confusing both terms. Article titles and/or abstracts should indicate clearly what sex(es) the study applies to. Authors should also describe in the background, whether sex and/or gender differences may be expected; report how sex and/or gender were accounted for in the design of the study; provide disaggregated data by sex and/or gender, where appropriate; and discuss respective results. If a sex and/or gender analysis was not conducted, the rationale should be given in the Discussion. We suggest that our authors consult the full guidelines before submission.

Borders and Territories

Authors should respect any potential conflicts about boundaries and regions, as these may be relevant when describing their study or in discussion with editors. Content decisions are editorial in nature, and in cases where a dispute or complaint may arise—real or imagined—the editorial staff will work to find a solution that meets the needs of all parties.

GP stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

GP Statement

All submitted manuscripts must conform to Gulf Publishers policies as described. In all instances, GP closely follows the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) principles of publication ethics laid out in its core practices documents. Their advice includes support on handling issues such as: conflicts of interest, authorship and contributorship issues and disputes, misconduct allegations and data issues, overlap and plagiarism, and peer review integrity.

Since GP Editorial Boards are autonomous, the publisher won’t meddle in editorial judgments. A decision may be modified if there are moral or legal problems; if a moral dilemma or policy conflict is discovered, a manuscript’s acceptance may be revoked. The publisher reserves the right to withdraw manuscripts that do not follow GP’s ethical criteria.

Every manuscript is examined by GP to ensure compliance with the Publication Ethics Guidelines. While the Journal Editorial Office personnel undertake some of the inspections manually, others are supported by automatic checks made possible by SuSy. When possible problems are indicated, a human decision-maker verifies them. A manuscript is frequently examined with an academic editor when it violates policies or is detected during a check.

Publication Ethics Statement

Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). We fully adhere to its Code of Conduct and to its Best Practice Guidelines.

The editors of this journal uphold stringent ethical standards and policies in addition to a rigorous peer-review procedure to guarantee the inclusion of top-notch scientific works in the field of scholarly publication. Plagiarism, data fabrication, image manipulation, improper authorship credit, and similar incidents do, regrettably, occur. Journal editors are taught to handle such situations with a zero tolerance policy and treat such publishing ethics violations extremely seriously.

Authors wishing to publish their papers in journal must abide to the following:

  • Any facts that might be perceived as a possible conflict of interest of the author(s) must be disclosed in the paper prior to submission.
  • Authors should accurately present their research findings and include an objective discussion of the significance of their findings.
  • Data and methods used in the research need to be presented in sufficient detail in the paper, so that other researchers can replicate the work.
  • Raw data should preferably be publicly deposited by the authors before submission of their manuscript. Authors need to at least have the raw data readily available for presentation to the referees and the editors of the journal, if requested. Authors need to ensure appropriate measures are taken so that raw data is retained in full for a reasonable time after publication.
  • Simultaneous submission of manuscripts to more than one journal is not tolerated.
  • The journal accepts exact translations of previously published work. All submissions of translations must conform with our policies on translations.
  • If errors and inaccuracies are found by the authors after publication of their paper, they need to be promptly communicated to the editors of this journal so that appropriate actions can be taken. Please refer to our policy regarding Updating Published Papers.
  • Your manuscript should not contain any information that has already been published. If you include already published figures or images, please obtain the necessary permission from the copyright holder to publish under the CC-BY license. For further information, see the Rights and Permissions page.
  • Plagiarism, data fabrication and image manipulation are not tolerated.
    • Plagiarism is not acceptable in journal submissions.

Plagiarism includes copying text, ideas, images, or data from another source, even from your own publications, without giving any credit to the original source.

Reuse of text that is copied from another source must be between quotes and the original source must be cited. If a study’s design or the manuscript’s structure or language has been inspired by previous works, these works must be explicitly cited.

All GP submissions are checked for plagiarism using the industry standard software iThenticate. If plagiarism is detected during the peer review process, the manuscript may be rejected. If plagiarism is detected after publication, an investigation will take place and action taken in accordance with our policies.

    • Image files must not be manipulated or adjusted in any way that could lead to misinterpretation of the information provided by the original image.

Irregular manipulation includes: 1) introduction, enhancement, moving, or removing features from the original image; 2) grouping of images that should obviously be presented separately (e.g., from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels); or 3) modifying the contrast, brightness or color balance to obscure, eliminate or enhance some information.

If irregular image manipulation is identified and confirmed during the peer review process, we may reject the manuscript. If irregular image manipulation is identified and confirmed after publication, we may correct or retract the paper.

Any claims of publication misconduct will be looked into by our in-house editors, who may also get in touch with the authors’ organisations or sponsors if needed. In the event that misbehaviour is discovered, the publication will be corrected or withdrawn as necessary. When publishing with GP, authors are expected to adhere to the highest standards of ethical publication practises.

Citation Policy

Authors should ensure that where material is taken from other sources (including their own published writing) the source is clearly cited and that where appropriate permission is obtained.

Authors should not engage in excessive self-citation of their own work.

Authors should not copy references from other publications if they have not read the cited work.

Authors should not preferentially cite their own or their friends’, peers’, or institution’s publications.

Authors should not cite advertisements or advertorial material.

In accordance with COPE guidelines, we expect that “original wording taken directly from publications by other researchers should appear in quotation marks with the appropriate citations.” This condition also applies to an author’s own work. COPE have produced a discussion document on citation manipulation with recommendations for best practice.

Reviewer Suggestions

Please recommend three possible reviewers with the necessary experience to read the article throughout the submission process. These referees won’t always be contacted by the editors. Please give your complete contact details (address, homepage, phone, e-mail address).  The suggested referees should not have published with any of the manuscript’s co-authors in the previous three years, nor should they now work with any of the co-authors on projects. It is recommended that the reviewers come from different academic institutions than the authors. You could look for suitable journal Editorial Board members to serve as possible reviewers. One option is to propose reviewers who are among the writers you regularly credit in your work. For comprehensive details about the credentials and duties of the reviewers, please visit

Preprints and Conference Papers

Journal accepts submissions that have previously been made available as preprints provided that they have not undergone peer review. A preprint is a draft version of a paper made available online before submission to a journal.


GP follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines which state that, in order to qualify for authorship of a manuscript, the following criteria should be observed:

  • Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  • Drafting the work or reviewing it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  • Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Editorial Independence

Absence of Intervention with Editorial Choices

The highest priority is given to editorial independence, and GP does not meddle with editorial choices. Our independent editorial boards peer review and evaluate every article published by GP, and GP staff members do not participate in the selection of accepted submissions. We anticipate that the academic editor will base their editorial decision-making only on:

  • The suitability of selected reviewers;
  • Adequacy of reviewer comments and author response;
  • Overall scientific quality of the paper.

In all of our journals, in every aspect of operation, GP policies are informed by the mission to make science and research findings open and accessible as widely and rapidly as possible.

Editors and Editorial Staff as Authors

Editors and editorial staff are not allowed to process their own academic work. At least two impartial outside reviewers will be tasked with reviewing submissions written by editorial staff or editors. Other members of the Editorial Board who are not in a conflict of interest with the author will make the decisions. The processing of their own work that is submitted to any GP journals is not done by journal staff.

Conflicts of Interest

“Authors should avoid entering into agreements with study sponsors, both for-profit and non-profit, that interfere with authors’ access to all of the study’s data or that interfere with their ability to analyse and interpret the data and to prepare and publish manuscripts independently when and where they choose,” states the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

Any affiliations or interests that can improperly affect or bias an author’s work must be disclosed. Financial interests (such as membership, employment, consultancies, ownership of stocks or shares, honoraria, grants or other funding, paid expert testimony, and patent-licensing arrangements) and non-financial interests are examples of potential conflicts of interest, but they are not the only ones (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, personal beliefs). 

During the submission process, authors have the option to disclose any potential conflicts of interest through the online submission system. A summary declaration must be included by the relevant author in the article in a distinct section labelled “Conflicts of Interest,” which should be put right before the reference list. All of the potential conflicts of interest that have been disclosed on the form should be reflected in the statement.

See below for examples of disclosures:

Conflicts of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stocks in Company Y. Author C has been involved as a consultant and expert witness in Company Z. Author D is the inventor of patent X.

If no conflicts exist, the authors should state:

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Editorial Procedures and Peer-Review


Immediately after submission, the journal’s Managing Editor will perform the technical pre-check to assess:

  • Overall suitability of the manuscript to the journal/section/Special Issue;
  • Manuscript adherence to high-quality research and ethical standards;
  • Standards of rigor to qualify for further review.

The academic editor (i.e., the Editor-in-Chief in the case of regular submissions, the Guest Editor in the case of Special Issue submissions, or an Editorial Board member in the case of a conflict of interest and of regular submissions if the Editor-in-Chief allows) will be notified of the submission and invited to perform an editorial pre-check. During the editorial pre-check phase, the academic editor will assess the suitability of the submission with respect to the scope of the journal, as well as the overall scientific soundness of the manuscript, including the relevance of the references and the correctness of the applied methodology. Academic editors can decide to reject the manuscript, request revisions before peer-review, or continue with the peer-review process and recommend suitable reviewers.


Once a manuscript passes the initial checks, it will be assigned to at least two independent experts for peer-review. A double-blind peer-review process is applied, where authors’ identities are not known to reviewers.

Regular submissions will be invited to specialists, including recommendations from an academic editor, by in-house assistant editors. The journal’s guest editors and members of the editorial board may also be considered among these specialists. The authors’ suggestions for potential reviewers might also be taken into account. Reviewers should not presently work or collaborate with any of the institutions of the co-authors of the submitted manuscript, nor should they have published with any of the co-authors within the last three years.

Optional Open Peer-Review

The journal uses optional open peer review, meaning that authors can choose to have all editorial decisions and review reports available with their paper. Furthermore, reviewers have the option to sign their review, which allows them to be identified in the published review reports. Before publication, authors are free to change their preference for open review at any moment; however, after the article is published, modifications can only be made at the publisher’s and editor-in-discretion. chief’s We urge authors to use this chance as evidence of the meticulous procedure followed in the publication of their work. In order to ensure unbiased refereeing, referees’ identities will only be disclosed with their consent and upon a paper’s acceptance for publication.

Editorial Decision and Revision

All the articles, reviews and communications published in Gulf Publishers journals go through the peer-review process and receive at least two reviews. The in-house editor will communicate the decision of the academic editor, which will be one of the following:

  • Accept after Minor Revisions:
    The paper is in principle accepted after revision based on the reviewer’s comments. Authors are given five days for minor revisions.
  • Reconsider after Major Revisions:
    The acceptance of the manuscript would depend on the revisions. The author needs to provide a point by point response or provide a rebuttal if some of the reviewer’s comments cannot be revised. A maximum of two rounds of major revision per manuscript is normally provided. Authors will be asked to resubmit the revised paper within a suitable time frame, and the revised version will be returned to the reviewer for further comments. If the required revision time is estimated to be longer than 1 months, we will recommend that authors withdraw their manuscript before resubmitting so as to avoid unnecessary time pressure and to ensure that all manuscripts are sufficiently revised.
  • Reject and Encourage Resubmission:
    If additional experiments are needed to support the conclusions, the manuscript will be rejected and the authors will be encouraged to re-submit the paper once further experiments have been conducted.
  • Reject:
    The article has serious flaws, and/or makes no original significant contribution. No offer of resubmission to the journal is provided.

All reviewer comments should be responded to in a point-by-point fashion. Where the authors disagree with a reviewer, they must provide a clear response.

Author Appeals

Authors may appeal a rejection by sending an e-mail to the Editorial Office of the journal. The appeal must provide a detailed justification, including point-by-point responses to the reviewers’ and/or Editor’s comments using an appeal form. Appeals can only be submitted following a “reject and decline resubmission” decision and should be submitted within three months from the decision date. Failure to meet these criteria will result in the appeal not being considered further. The Managing Editor will forward the manuscript and related information (including the identities of the referees) to a designated Editorial Board Member. The Academic Editor being consulted will be asked to provide an advisory recommendation on the manuscript and may recommend acceptance, further peer-review, or uphold the original rejection decision. This decision will then be validated by the Editor-in-Chief. A reject decision at this stage is final and cannot be reversed.

Production and Publication

Once accepted, the manuscript will undergo professional copy-editing, English editing, proofreading by the authors, final corrections, pagination, and, publication on the website.

Please read detailed Editorial Process here.

Promoting Equity, Diversity and Inclusiveness within Gulf Publishers Journals

The Editors-in-Chief and Associate Editors are encouraged by our Managing Editors to appoint a diverse and knowledgeable Editorial Board. Our inclusive, multinational workplace reflects this as well. Regardless of a person’s gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, religion, or socioeconomic background, we take pride in providing equitable chances. Discrimination has no place in our business, and GP journal editors have a duty to promote these values to the highest standard.